Contaminated water is one of the primary modes of transmission of enteric fever. Typhoid and paratyphoid bacteria are passed in the feces and urine of infected people. Others become infected after eating food or drinking beverages that have been washed or prepared with contaminated water, eating or drinking foods or beverages that have been handled by a person who is infected with typhoid, or by drinking water that has been contaminated by sewage containing the bacteria.
Prevention is key to stopping the cycle of typhoid transmission. Vaccines can help ward off typhoid infection in endemic environments, while improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) infrastructure can help eliminate exposure to typhoid and paratyphoid bacteria.
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