Abraham Fikru Mechesso, Quah Yixian, Seung-Chun Park
Nymphaea tetragona Georgi (Nymphaceae) is traditionally used in Asia for the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and fever. The plant contains various active compounds, including methyl gallate (MG) which are reported to inhibit bacterial virulence mechanisms. This study aimed to evaluate the alterations on viability, membrane potential and integrity of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium exposed to MG in combination with Tylosin (Ty), which is relatively inactive against Gram-negative bacteria, but it is commonly used as a feed additive in livestock. Besides, the effects of sub-inhibitory concentrations of the combination (MT) on the interaction between S. Typhimurium and the host cell, as well as on the indirect host responses, were characterized. Flow cytometry, confocal and electron microscopic examinations were undertaken to determine the effects of MT on S. Typhimurium. The impacts of sub-inhibitory concentrations of MT on biofilm formation, as well as on the adhesion, invasion and intracellular survival of S. Typhimurium were assessed. The result demonstrated significant damage to the bacterial membrane, leakage of cell contents and a reduction in the membrane potential when treated with MT. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of MT significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the biofilm-forming, adhesive and invasive abilities of S. Typhimurium. Exposure to MT drastically reduced the bacterial count in macrophages. Up-regulation of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and IL-10 cytokine genes were detected in intestinal epithelial cells pre-treated with MT. This report is the first to describe the effects of MT against S. Typhimurium. The result indicates a synergistic interaction between MG and Ty against S. Typhimurium. Therefore, the combination may be a promising option to combat S. Typhimurium in swine and, indirectly, safeguard the health of the public.
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