12th Conference Resources

The 12th International Conference on Typhoid and Other Invasive Salmonelloses was held virtually on December 6-8, 2021. More than 400 researchers and experts gathered to exchange the latest findings and research on typhoid, paratyphoid, and invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella disease.

Welcome Letter

Presentations

Presentations can be viewed individually at the links below.

Monday, December 6, 2021

Opening Session

  • Welcome remarks, Amy Finan, Sabin Vaccine Institute
  • Welcome remarks and housekeeping items, Denise Garrett, Sabin Vaccine Institute
  • Opening keynote address, Duncan Steele, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Improving Water and Sanitation Services in Cities with Endemic Typhoid Transmission

Moderated by Steve Luby, Stanford University

  • Irene Nansubuga, National Water and Sewerage Corporation, Uganda
  • Barbara Evans, University of Leeds
  • Ranjiv Khush, Aquaya Institute

Cracking the Code: Developments in Genomics Research for Enteric Fever Control

Moderated by Christiane Dolececk, University of Oxford & Senjuti Saha, Child Health Research Foundation

  • OR100 – Using stem-cell derived gut organoids and macrophages to study transcriptomic response induced by S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A infection in the human host, Emily Lees, University of Oxford/University of Cambridge
  • OR102 – Chromosomal integration of resistance mechanisms in ESBL-producing XDR Salmonella Typhi isolated from travellers returning to England and Wales from Pakistan, Satheesh Nair, Public Health England
  • OR105 – Impact of genome rearrangement in S. Typhi, Gemma Langridge, Quadram Institute Bioscience
  • OR106 – The origins of H58 Salmonella Typhi, Megan Carey, Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology & Infectious Disease (CITIID), Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
  • OR109 – Genomic analysis unveils the role of genetic changes in the emergence and persistence of S. Paratyphi A lineages, Agila Kumari Pragasam, Christian Medical College, Vellore
  • OR110 – Genomic epidemiology of Salmonella Typhi underlines the significance of lineage resolution diagnosis, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Christian Medical College, Vellore

At the Bedside: Investigating Clinical Outcomes & Impact of Disease

Moderated by Richelle Charles, Massachusetts General Hospital and Jessica Seidman, Sabine Vaccine Institute 

  • OR101 – Complications and mortality of non-typhoidal Salmonella invasive disease: A global systematic review and meta-analysis, Christian Marchello, University of Otago
  • OR103 – Burden of ileal perforations in surgical patients admitted in hospitals of three Asian countries: Surveillance of Enteric Fever in Asia Project (SEAP), 2016–2019, Saqib Hamid Qazi, Department of Surgery, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
  • OR104 – Antimicrobial resistance in typhoidal Salmonella: Surveillance for Enteric Fever in Asia Project, 2016–2019, Farah Naz Qamar, Aga Khan University Hospital
  • OR107 – Emergency detection of Salmonella shedding in Malosa typhoid outbreak, Peter Johnston, Department of Infection, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease, University of Sheffield
  • OR108 – Typhoid associated terminal illness symptoms and end-of-life health seeking behaviour in medically underserved communities in rural, southwestern Nigeria, Janet Ogundairo, Severe Typhoid in Africa (SETAPlus) Project Nigeria, Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • OR111 – Burden of culture confirmed enteric fever cases in Karachi, Pakistan: Surveillance for Enteric Fever in Asia Project (SEAP), 2016–2019, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan

Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Safety and Efficacy: Results From Clinical Studies in Africa and Asia

Moderated by Kathleen Neuzil, University of Maryland, Baltimore

  • Efficacy of typhoid conjugate vaccine in children 9 Months to under-16 years in Nepal: A participant-observer-blind phase III randomized controlled trial, Mila Shakya, Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • Long-term efficacy of the typhoid conjugate vaccine in Malawi, Priyanka Patel, Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme
  • Efficacy of Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (Vi-TT) in Bangladeshi children: Results from an interim analysis of a cluster-randomized trial, Farhana Khanam, icddr, b
  • Effectiveness of Typbar® TCV against culture confirmed and extensively drug resistant typhoid among children in Hyderabad, Pakistan: A cohort study, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Dept. of Pediatrics & Child Health, Aga Khan University

Diagnostics for Typhoid: Current Status and Future Perspectives for Product Development and Access

Moderated by Sabine Dittrich, FIND, Global Alliance for Diagnostics

  • Typhoid diagnosis from past to present: How far have we come? Buddha Basnyat, OUCRU-Nepal
  • The present: Novel performance data of existing and commercially available POC tools from Africa and Asia, Jyotshna Sapkota, FIND; Nepal Medical College
  • The future: Landscape of new developments and innovations, Stephen Baker, University of Cambridge
  • The reality of diagnosing typhoid in settings with limited laboratory capacity – particularly during a pandemic, Tamalee Roberts, Lao-Oxford-Mahosot Hospital Wellcome Trust Research Unit
  • Access challenges to better typhoid diagnostic-from quality to funding, Lee Hampton, GAVI, the Vaccine Alliance

Tuesday, December 7, 2021

Keep Your Guard Up: The Latest on Typhoid Vaccine Immunogenicity and Efficacy

Moderated by Melita Gordon, University of Liverpool & Justin Im, IVI

  • OR128 – Efficacy of typhoid conjugate vaccine in Nepal: A participant-observer-blind phase III randomized controlled trial, Mila Shakya, Oxford University Clinical Research Unit – Nepal, Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Lalitpur, Nepal
  • OR131 – Immunogenicity of typhoid conjugate vaccine in Nepal: A participant-observer-blind phase III randomized controlled trial, Mila Shakya, Oxford University Clinical Research Unit – Nepal, Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Lalitpur, Nepal
  • OR112 – Protection by vaccination of children against typhoid fever with a Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (Vi-TT) in urban Bangladesh: A cluster-randomized trial, John D. Clemens, icddr, b
  • OR114 – Immune responses induced in children after vaccination with Vi-TT vaccine: immunogenicity data from a cluster-randomised controlled trial in Bangladesh, Firdausi Qadri, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • OR116 – A phase IV, randomized, open-label, immunogenicity and safety trial of Typbar-TCV™ and Typhim Vi® in healthy children, Vinay Kumar Aileni, Bharat Biotech International Limited
  • OR118 – Serologic response using ELISA anti-Vi IgG antibodies at several time points following a single shot of Typbar-TCV among HIV children in Larkana, Pakistan, Rabab Batool, Aga Khan University Hospital

Keeping a Watchful Eye: Exploring Surveillance for Enteric Fever

Moderated by Andrea Haselbeck, IVI & Farah Naz Qamar, The Aga Khan University

  • OR127 – TyphiNET: An online dashboard for global genomic surveillance of Salmonella Typhi, Zoe Dyson, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
  • OR132 – School-based rapid assessment of enteric fever in Lyari Town, Karachi: Surveillance of Enteric Fever in Asia Project, Irum Fatima, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
  • OR113 – Paratype: A genomic surveillance framework and an open-source tool for Salmonella Paratyphi A, Arif Mohammad Tanmoy, Child Health Research Foundation
  • OR115 – Seroprevalence of Salmonella Typhi and fluroquinolones resistant gene characterization in southwest Nigeria, Jessica Uwanibe
  • OR117 – The impact of the community and public health response to COVID-19 on typhoid surveillance and detection in Malawi, Priyanka Patel, Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme
  • OR135 – The development of a multiplex immunoassay to screen 30,000 serum samples to measure the burden of typhoid fever: The STRATAA sero-epidemiology study, Paula Russell, Cambridge University

Universal Challenges, Shared Solutions: A Discussion About How We Take on Typhoid Together

Moderator: Farzana Muhib, PATH

  • Millions vaccinated and millions to go: TCV campaign challenges, solutions, and the pathway forward in Pakistan, M. Imran Khan, PHC global (pvt). Ltd.
  • Leading the way with TCV in Africa; shared lessons for upcoming campaign introductions, Alice O. Peter, EPI Consultant, Liberia
  • Integrated TCV campaign in Zimbabwe: What we know now, Jessica Farley, PATH

Sero-Epidemiology of Enteric Fever: Rapidly Assess Disease Burden to Inform Vaccine Introduction

Moderated by Jessica Seidman, Sabin Vaccine Institute & Jason Andrews, Stanford University

  • Diagnostic accuracy of HlyE and LPS for distinguishing enteric fever from other acute fever etiologies, Richelle Charles, Massachusetts General Hospital
  • Leveraging longitudinal antibody kinetics to derive enteric fever incidence estimates in population-based samples, Kristen Aiemjoy, Stanford University
  • Using sero-epi to generate granular sub-national data: Comparing Dhaka, Mirzapur, and Chittagong, Sira Jam Munira, Child Health Research Foundation
  • Using sero-surveillance to identify risk factors for enteric fever, Dipesh Tamrakar, Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu Medical College

What Should We Be Recommending for the Treatment of Enteric Fever?

Moderated by Christopher M. Parry, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and Buddha Basnyat, OUCRU-Nepal

  • How strong is the evidence for current treatment regimens for acute enteric fever? Christopher Parry, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK
  • What are the treatment options for XDR typhoid and should we use steroids in severe disease? Farah Qamar, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Should we combine antimicrobials to treat enteric fever? The ACT-South Asia Trial, Samita Rijal, OUCRU-Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • How should we treat a patient with chronic typhoid faecal carriage? Naina McCann, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, UCL, London, UK
  • Emerging resistance patterns and potential new treatments. Any hope on the horizon? Stephen Baker, Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, UK

Nontyphoidal Salmonella Invasive Disease: Challenges and Solutions?

Moderated by John Crump, University of Otago

  • Melita A. Gordon, Malawi Liverpool Wellcome Trust Programme and University of Liverpool
  • Samuel M. Kariuki, Kenya Medical Research Institute
  • Tonney S. Nyirenda, University of Malawi
  • Lisette Mbuyi, University Hospital of Kinshasa
  • Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology
  • Marie-France Phoba, University Hospital of Kinshasa
  • James A. Platts-Mills, University of Virginia
  • Bieke Tack, Institute of Tropical Medicine Antwerp, Belgium

I Can See the Light: Breaking Down the Impact & Effectiveness of the Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine

Moderated by Aziza Mwisongo, PATH & Jacob John, Christian Medical College Vellore

  • OR120 – Serological response using ELISA Anti-Vi-IgG after single dose of typhoid conjugate vaccine against Salmonella Typhi among children in Hyderabad, Pakistan, Sonia Qureshi, Aga Khan University Hospital
  • OR121 – Effectiveness of typhoid conjugate vaccine against culture-confirmed typhoid in a peri-urban setting in Karachi: A case-control study, Rabab Batool, Aga Khan University Hospital
  • OR123 – Impact of mass vaccination with the new typhoid conjugate vaccine on Salmonella Typhi incidence in Harare, Zimbabwe, Ioana Diana Olaru, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK; Biomedical Research and Training Institute, Zimbabwe
  • OR125 – Serious adverse events in a typhoid conjugate vaccine efficacy study in Malawi, Priyanka Patel, Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme
  • OR130 – Effectiveness of typhoid conjugate vaccine against culture-confirmed S. Typhi among children aged 9 months to 15 years in Sindh, Pakistan, Rozina Thobani, Aga Khan University, Karachi
  • OR134 – Typhoid conjugate vaccine and Japanese encephalitis vaccine used in pregnancy: A case series, Katherine Theiss-Nyland, Oxford Vaccine Group, University of Oxford

WASH and Beyond: Enteric fever and the Environment

Moderated by Jay Bhagwan, Water Research Commission South Africa & Daniele Lantagne, Tufts University

  • OR119 – Prevention of typhoid fever by existing improvements of WASH and Vi polysaccharide typhoid vaccine in poor urban slums. Results from a cluster-randomized trial, Justin Im, International Vaccine Institute
  • OR122 – Microbial ecology insights from watershed to laboratory on S. Typhi persistence in the environment, Aaron Jenkins, University of Sydney, Edith Cowan University, Fiji Centre for Communicable Disease
  • OR124 – Assessment of potential typhoid and paratyphoid environmental transmission pathways for adults and children in Kolkata, India, Yuke Wang, Center of Global Safe WASH, Emory University
  • OR126 – Environmental surveillance for typhoidal Salmonellas in household and surface waters in Nepal identifies potential transmission pathways, Sneha Shrestha & Christopher Leboa, Stanford University
  • OR129 – Better existing WASH is associated with a reduced risk of typhoid in urban slums: Results from a prospective cohort study from Bangladesh, Birkneh Tadesse, International Vaccine Institute
  • OR133 – Wastewater-based environmental surveillance of enteric fever in Kolkata, India, Renuka Kapoor, Emory University

Impact of COVID-19 on Research and Immunization Programs

Moderated by Isaac Bogoch, University of Toronto & Kirsten Vannice, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

  • Gagandeep (Cherry) Kang, Christian Medical College
  • Soofia Yunus, EPI Pakistan
  • Amol Chaudhari, CEPI
  • Isaac Bogoch, University of Toronto

Wednesday, December 8, 2021

Driving Ahead of the Curve: A Glimpse into What’s Next for Vaccine Development

Moderated by Sam Kariuki, Kenya Medical Research Institute & Sushant Sahastrabuddhe, IVI

  • OR153 – MAPS vaccine against Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis, Yingjie Lu, Boston Children
  • OR157 – Safety & immunogenicity of typhoid conjugate vaccine co-administration with routine 9 & 15 month vaccination in Burkina Faso: A randomized controlled phase 2 trial, Alphonse Ouedraogo, Groupe de Recherche Action en Santé (GRAS)
  • OR136 – Safety and long-term immunogenicity of a novel typhoid conjugate vaccine in Malawian infants and children, Nginache Nampota-Nkomba, Blantyre Malaria Project, University of Malawi
  • OR138 – An effective, affordable and sustainable vaccine to tackle Salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa, Rocio Canals Alvarez, GSK Vaccines Institute for Global Health
  • OR140 – Antibody-dependent neutrophil phagocytosis associates with distinct antibody glycosylation profiles following typhoid vaccination, Mari Johnson, Oxford Vaccine Group
  • OR142 – Phase 1 trial of a trivalent Salmonella conjugate vaccine to prevent invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella infections and typhoid fever in sub-Saharan Africa, Myron Levine, Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine

Pieces of a Puzzle: iNTS: Research Round-up

Moderated by Nick Feasey, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, & Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology

  • OR152 – Antimicrobial resistance and sickle cell protein analysis in non-typhoidal Salmonella from children below 16 years in informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya, Susan Kavai, STRATAA
  • OR155 – Incidence and associated mortality of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella in Mozambican children admitted to the Manhiça District Hospital, Inacio Mandomando, Centro de Investigação em Saúde de Manhiça
  • OR137 – A different toolbox: Isolation and characterisation of bacteriophages with activity against multidrug resistant invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella, Blanca Perez-Sepulveda, University of Liverpool
  • OR139 – Sero-epidemiology in Africa of invasive non-typhoidal salmonellosis (SAiNTS study); study aims, design and early findings, Helen Dale, University of Liverpool
  • OR156 – Incidence of non-typhoidal Salmonella invasive disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Christian Marchello, University of Otago
  • OR141 – Peripheral and duodenal gamma-delta T cells show impaired functional responses to Salmonella Typhimurium in people living with HIV, Ndaru Jambo, University of Liverpool

Supportive Resources for Genomic Data Generation, Analysis & Visualization

Moderated by Megan Carey, Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology & Infectious Disease (CITIID), Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

  • Sofonias Tessema, Africa Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Africa CDC): Africa Pathogen Genomics Initiative
  • Iruka Okeke, University of Ibadan
  • Silvia Argimón, Centre for Genomic Pathogen Surveillance, Big Data Institute, University of Oxford
  • Zoe Dyson, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Monash University, University of Cambridge, Wellcome Sanger Insitute
  • Kat Holt, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Monash University
  • Stephen Baker, University of Cambridge

Typhoid Conjugate Vaccines Introduction: Comprehensive New Tools, Processes, and Findings for Decision-Making

Moderated by Aziza Mwisongo, PATH

  • Typhoid data in the early adopter countries, Lassane Kabore, PATH
  • BRAT – The framework and tool for typhoid burden and risk assessment, Lucy Breakwell, USCDC
  • The cost of typhoid fever, data and implications for TCV decision-making in Malawi, Fumbani Limani, University of Malawi
  • Estimating the cost to deliver TCV, current support and data, Rouden E Mkisi, PATH

Typhoid Elimination: Challenges and Opportunities

Moderated by Supriya Kumar, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

  • Raphael Zellweger, IVI
  • Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, KNUST
  • Firdausi Qadri, isddr,b
  • Samantha Vanderslott, Oxford Vaccine Group

Dig a Little Deeper: A Look into Genomics for Enteric Fever Surveillance

Moderated by Stephen Baker, University of Cambridge & Arif Tanmoy, Child Health Research Foundation

  • OR143 – Genomic analysis of S. Typhi in Colombia, Diaz Guevara & Paula Lucia, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Colombia
  • OR145 – The Strategic Typhoid Alliance Across Africa and Asia (STRATAA): Genetic epidemiology of typhoidal Salmonella in Blantyre, Kathmandu and Dhaka, Zoe Dyson, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
  • OR147 – Phylogenomics and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A, B & C in England, 2016-2019, Marie Chattaway, Public Health England
  • OR149 – Emergence and international spread of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella Typhi, Kesia da Silva, Stanford University
  • OR154 – Historic (1980s) and recent Salmonella Typhi genotypes in Santiago, Chile, Mailis Maes, Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology & Infectious Disease (CITIID), Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
  • OR159 – Combined phylogenomic, epidemiologic, and geospatial cluster analyses to understand endemic typhoid fever transmission in Samoa, Michael Sikorski, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine

The Price We Pay: Understanding Cost and Policy in Decision Making for Vaccine Introduction

Moderated by Jillian Gauld, Institute for Disease Modeling & Clint Pecenka, PATH

  • OR144 – Cost of illness due to severe enteric fever in India, Dilesh Kumar, Christian Medical College, Vellore
  • OR146 – Evaluating the short and medium term impact of enteric fever on families in Nepal: Results from the TyVAC Cost of Illness Study, Amanda Schulhofer, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
  • OR148 – Cost-effectiveness analysis of typhoid conjugate vaccines in an outbreak setting, Virginia Pitzer, Yale School of Public Health
  • OR150 – Gavi funding partnership: Typhoid conjugate vaccine introduction in Malawi, Priyanka Patel, Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme
  • OR151 – Comparison of model predictions of typhoid conjugate vaccine impact and cost-effectiveness, Holly Burrows, Yale University
  • OR158 – Perspectives of typhoid fever and perceptions of typhoid vaccine towards shaping the decision to vaccinate, Sangwani Salimu, Malawi Liverpool Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme

Latebreakers Abstracts

Moderated by John Crump, University of Otago & Firdausi Qadri, icddr,b

  • LB300 – Twenty Years of Typhoid Genomics, Megan Carey, Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology & Infectious Disease (CITIID), Department of Medicine, Univeristy of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
  • LB301 – Impact of a Pediatric Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Campaign in Navi Mumbai, India, Seth Hoffman, Division of Infectious Diseases & Geographic Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA
  • LB302 – Clinical, microbiologic, and pathologic assessment of gastro-intestinal perforations in northern Tanzania, Cristina Costales, Stanford University
  • LB303 – Modelling the subnational prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A in 75 endemic countries, 1990 to 2019, Annie Brown, University of Oxford
  • LB304 – Parallel evolution of invasive Salmonella Typhimurium isolates from the Democratic Republic of Congo towards O:5 loss in the O-antigen structure, Sandra Van Puyvelde, University of Cambridge/University of Antwerp
  • LB305 – Anti-Vi IgA responses in 9- and 15-month-old children vaccinated with a typhoid conjugate vaccine in Burkina Faso, Alphonse Ouedraogo, Groupe de Recherche Action en Santé (GRAS)

Achieving Impact: Charting the Course to Meet the Challenges Ahead

Moderated by Denise Garrett, Sabin Vaccine Institute & Jeff Stanaway, University of Washington

  • Calman MacLennan, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
  • Jason Andrews, Stanford University
  • Iruka Okeke, University of Ibadan
  • Anita Zaidi, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation