Take on Typhoid June Newsletter

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In this issue:

Malawi introduces TCV

In May, Malawi introduced typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) into its routine immunization program during an integrated campaign for children 9 months to younger than 15 years old. The campaign included TCV, measles-rubella, and polio vaccines, as well as vitamin A supplementation for eligible children, further strengthening Malawi’s routine immunization program. The campaign reached more than 7 million children across the country. Malawi is now transitioning to offer TCV at routine 9-month-old childhood wellness visits.

Malawi experiences a high burden of typhoid and increasing drug-resistant typhoid. In addition, extreme weather events like the recent Cyclone Freddy raise typhoid risks. Malawi is the third country in Africa to introduce TCV. This is a major step forward in protecting children from this potentially deadly disease.

Long-term data on TCV efficacy from Malawi

Previous data from a Phase 3 study led by Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust (MLW) showed a single dose of Typbar TCV® is safe and effective in protecting against typhoid for 18-24 months in Malawi. MLW continued to follow these children, and new data show TCV prevents blood culture-confirmed typhoid for more than 4 years among children aged 9 months-12 years.

The results from this study showed little decline in TCV efficacy during the 4 years. Efficacies by age-group were 70.6% in children aged 9 months to younger than 2 years, 79.6% in children 2 to younger than 5 years, and 79.3% in children 5 to 12 years.

These promising results from Malawi offer hope that more decision-makers will prioritize TCV introduction to protect all children from typhoid.

Just published: Coalition Against Typhoid’s 12th International Conference Supplement

The Coalition Against Typhoid’s journal supplement titled “Charting the Course to Meet the Challenges Ahead: Research and Developments on Typhoid and Other Invasive Salmonelloses” recently published in Open Forum Infectious Diseases. This supplement disseminates recent advancements, research findings, and strategic approaches to combat the burden of typhoid, paratyphoid, and invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS). The publication draws upon presentations at the 12th International Conference on Typhoid and Other Invasive Salmonelloses, December 2021. Spanning 13 articles, the supplement provides crucial updates on burden estimates, innovative diagnostic techniques, emerging trends in antimicrobial resistance, and progress in developing novel vaccine candidates.

A single dose of TCV remains immunogenic for at least two years among Bangladeshi children

new study shows immune responses remain high two years after vaccination with a single dose of TCV in Bangladesh. These findings are important measurements of potential TCV impact and can guide policymakers in their strategic consideration of TCV introduction.

Typhoid surveillance for 10 years in Kibera, Kenya

Long-term typhoid burden data can help decision-makers understand the scale and impact of disease to guide typhoid control strategies. A recently published study tracked ten years of typhoid burden data in Kibera, a densely populated informal urban settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. The results show typhoid burden in Kibera is dynamic and fluctuates over time, highlighting the importance of consistent and sustainable prevention measures such as TCV immunization programs and sustained investment in water, sanitation, and hygiene infrastructure. The results also show children are consistently at the highest risk for typhoid and drug-resistant typhoid remains a persistent threat and challenge. An accompanying editorial also highlights why long-term burden data from a single site is so important for tracking typhoid trends over time.

TCVs are a critical tool that can help address the high burden observed in Kibera, particularly among children. TCV introduction into the routine immunization program could substantially reduce typhoid burden in children who are at highest risk. Kenya plans to introduce TCV nationally in 2024.

Conference registration opens July 10

The 13th International Conference on Typhoid and Other Invasive Salmonelloses is scheduled for December 5 – 7, 2023 in Kigali, Rwanda. The conference will bring together researchers, advocates, and policymakers to share best practices and accelerate the latest developments to reduce the burden of typhoid, paratyphoid, and iNTS disease for communities around the world.

We hope you will join us as we unite to invigorate and coordinate the global response to typhoid under the theme, Catalyzing Change: The Urgency of Expanding Impact-Driven Solutions. Mark your calendars for July 10, when registration opens on the conference website.


Scientific publications

Charting the course to meet the challenges ahead: Research and developments on typhoid and other invasive salmonelloses

Typhoid conjugate vaccines for preventing typhoid fever (enteric fever)

Dynamic incidence of typhoid fever over a 10-Year period (2010-2019) in Kibera, an urban informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya

Immune responses in children after vaccination with a typhoid Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in Bangladesh

Assessment of vaccine herd protection in a cluster-randomised trial of Vi conjugate vaccine against typhoid fever: Results of further analysis

Incidence of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella in Blantyre, Malawi between January 2011-December 2019

The prevalence of undiagnosed Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi in healthy school-aged children in Osun State, Nigeria

The genomic characterization of Salmonella Paratyphi A from an outbreak of enteric fever in Vadodara, India

Visit our publications page for more recent research

Vaccines for children everywhere: The importance of preventive care for refugees

Ten years of surveillance finds a variable but persistently high typhoid burden in Kibera, Kenya

The importance of gender equity to take on typhoid together

How do water samples help identify typhoid burden?

What can intestinal perforations tell us about typhoid disease burden?

TCV remains immunogenic for at least two years among Bangladeshi children

Breaking new ground: Insights from a longstanding research partnership in Malawi

Amidst challenges, Malawi delivers for the children

Building a stronger market: The benefits of investing in more TCVs

Previous posts available on the blog