Epidemiological Profile and Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of Enteric Fever in a Tertiary Care Hospital of North India – a Seven Year Ambispective Study


Anuradha Makkar, Shilpi Gupta, Inam Danish Khan, Rajiv Mohan Gupta, KS Rajmohan, Harleen Chopra, Manisha Gupta, Sachin Bansal, Bindu Poonia, Muqtadir Malik, Pragyan Swagatika Panda


Enteric-fever is a major public-health problem in developing countries emerging as multidrug-resistant, Nalidixic-acid resistant and extremely drug-resistant Salmonella (Pakistan, 2016), has intensified the use of WHO watch/reserve group antimicrobials such as azithromycin and meropenem. This ambispective-study was conducted on 782 non-repeat blood-culture isolates of S. Typhi, S. Paratyphi A and S. Paratyphi B obtained from 29,184 blood cultures received at a 1000-bedded tertiary-care hospital of North-India from 2011-2017. Identification and antibiograms were obtained by Vitek-2 compact and Kirby-Bauer’s disc diffusion with resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and cotrimoxazole being labeled as multidrug-resistant. Decreased ciprofloxacin-susceptibility and ciprofloxacin-resistance were defined as MIC 0.125-0.5 and >1 μg/ml. S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A in a ratio of 3.9:1 were seen between July-September predominantly distributed between 6-45 year age group. Resistance to co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone and azithromycin was 6.1%, 13.8%, 16.1 and 5.78% respectively. Multidrug-resistant S. typhi and S. paratyphi A were 2.73% and 1.91% respectively. Enteric-fever is a major public-health problem in India. Emergence of multidrug-resistant, Nalidixic-acid resistant and extremely-drug resistant Salmonella mandates ongoing surveillance for targeted empirical therapy and containment of spread. Repeated epidemics call for water, sanitation, hygiene and vaccination strategies to sustain herd-immunity.

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