Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is seldom described as a complication of typhoid fever (TF). Only 13 cases have hitherto been reported in the English and non-English literature since 1990. We report an 8-year-old boy with TF after return from India who developed pediatric ARDS (pARDS) despite adequate antibiotic treatment. Among patients with available information including this case, we noted that most not born or raised in a TF-endemic country (4/6) compared with none (0/6) of the domestic cases in a TF-endemic country developed ARDS within 48 hours of starting the antibiotic treatment. Our case raises important questions regarding the frequency, pathophysiology, and appropriate management of ARDS and pARDS in patients with TF.
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