Background: Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of the body fluids is considered a quick, simple and easy to use method for the diagnosis of disease.
Objectives: To evaluate rapid, reliable, and non-destructive SERS-based diagnostic tool with multivariate data analysis including principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) for classification of different stages of typhoid on the basis of characteristic SERS spectral features.
Methods: SERS has been used for analysis of serum samples of different stages of typhoid including early acute stage and late acute stage in comparison with healthy samples, in order to investigate capability of this technique for diagnosis of typhoid. SERS spectral features associated with the biochemical changes taking place during the development of the typhoid fever were analyzed and identified.
Results: The value of area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) for early acute stage versus healthy is 0.87 and that for healthy versus late acute stage is 0.52. PLS-DA classifier model gives values of 100% for accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, respectively for the SERS spectral data sets of healthy versus early acute stage. Moreover, this classifier model gives values of 91%, 89% and 97% for accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, respectively for the SERS spectral data sets of healthy versus late acute stage.
Conclusions: Based on preliminary work it is concluded that SERS has potential to diagnose various stages of typhoid fever including early acute and late acute stage in comparison with healthy ones.
Click here to read the article, published in Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy.