Sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation are rare complications of typhoid fever: A case report


Nurnaningsih, Vincencius William, Desy Rusmawatiningtyas, Firdian Makrufardi, Intan Fatah Kumara


Introduction: and importance: Typhoid fever is an infection caused by Salmonella typhi. The common complications are intestinal perforation and typhoid encephalopathy. Cases of typhoid fever with sepsis and/or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) are rarely reported, even though typhoid fever is endemic in Indonesia.

Case presentation: A 4-year-old male referral case from a district hospital was experiencing fever, decrease of consciousness and massive bleeding from his gastrointestinal tract and nose. Investigation revealed results from the IgM typhoid test using Tubex®TF, with the score of +8. PELOD 2 score was 10, and PSOFA was 5. DIC score was 7. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed with typhoid fever, with DIC and sepsis being the complication of the typhoid fever.

Clinical discussion: DIC is mostly a subclinical event, and severe bleeding complications found in typhoid fever are uncommon, although DIC scores which indicate an imbalance of coagulation and fibrinolysis are markedly elevated in patients with typhoid. DIC can be a part of multi-organ dysfunction due to sepsis syndrome. Acute infection can also result in systemic activation of coagulation.

Conclusion: Sepsis and DIC are rare complications of typhoid fever. Typhoid fever can be presented with profound bleeding manifestation other than gastrointestinal bleeding, since it is a common symptom of typhoid fever. Further research should be conducted to postulate association between typhoid fever and DIC.

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