Maria Rosario Capeding, Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse, Arijit Sil, Edison Alberto, Deok Ryun Kim, Eun Lyeong Park, Ju Yeon Park, Jae Seung Yang, Jagadeesh Reddy Eluru, Sue-Kyoung Jo, Hun Kim, Seon-Young Yang, Ji Hwa Ryu, Hokeun Park, Jong Hoon Shin, Yoonyeong Lee, Jerome H. Kim, Zenaida Reynoso Mojares, T. Anh Wartel & Sushant Sahastrabuddhe
Vaccination with typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCV) is a major part of typhoid prevention. However, little is known about long-term immune persistence following vaccination with TCVs. In this phase-2, randomized double-blind trial (NCT03527355), 285 children aged 6–23 months were randomized to one of three groups: (1) the group that received a first dose of Vi polysaccharide conjugated to diphtheria-toxoid (Vi-DT) vaccine followed by an “early booster” at 24 weeks, (2) the group that which received a first dose of Vi-DT followed by a “late booster” at 96 or 110 weeks, and (3) comparator group. Safety and immunogenicity of anti-Vi IgG GMTs were assessed at weeks 0, 4, 24, 28, 60, 96, 110, and 114 since the first dose. Here, we describe persistence of immune responses at weeks 60, 96, 110, and 114 post first dose. The anti-Vi IgG seroconversion rate after 27.5 months of follow-up was 88.16% (95% CI: 79.00, 93.64) in late-booster and 94.76% (95% CI: 86.91, 97.88) in early booster Vi-DT groups (p = 0.081). Whereas anti-Vi IgG GMTs were significantly higher in the early booster group (11.95 [95% CI: 9.65, 14.81]) than prebooster GMTs in the late booster group (5.50 [95% CI: 4.44, 6.80], p < 0.0001). GMT in the late booster group significantly increased to 351.76 (95% CI: 265.01, 466.93) (p < 0.0001) when measured 4 weeks after they received their “late-booster” shot. In conclusion, late booster dosing with Vi-DT at 27.5 months post first dose was safe and elicited robust anti-Vi IgG immune responses. Anti-Vi IgG seroconversion rates were persistently comparable in early and late-booster Vi-DT groups.
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