Safety and immunogenicity of conjugate vaccine for typhoid (Vi-DT): Finding from an observer-blind, active-controlled, randomized, non-inferiority, phase III clinical trial among healthy volunteers


Dipesh Tamrakar, Pranodan Poudel, Pragya Thapa, Srijana Singh, Amit Khadgi, Sameera Thapa, Rajendra Tamrakar, Anmol Shrestha, Surendra Madhup, Ganesh Kumar Rai, Birendra Prasad Gupta, Tarun Saluja, Sushant Sahastrabuddhe, Rajeev Shrestha


Typhoid fever is a significant public health concern with most of the sufferers between 15 and 25 y of age in Nepal. We undertook this study to demonstrate Vi polysaccharide conjugated with diphtheria toxoid (Vi-DT) conjugate vaccine which is non-inferior to Typbar typhoid conjugate vaccine, a Vi polysaccharide vaccine conjugated with tetanus toxoid (Vi-TT) with a focus on the adult population from Dhulikhel Hospital which was one of the total four sites in Nepal. In this study, we assigned the eligible participants in 1:1:1:1 ratio by block randomization, and stratified into three age groups (6 months to less than 2 y, 2 y to less than 18 y, and 18 y to 45 y), allotted to Group A, B, C, and D. Group A, B, and C received 25 μg (0.5 mL) of Vi-DT study vaccine and participants in Group D received 25 μg (0.5 mL) Vi-TT vaccine. We descriptively analyzed safety in all the participants receiving one dose of the investigational vaccine. The anti-Vi-IgG seroconversion rate in Vi-DT recipients was 99.71% (97.5% CI 98.04-99.96; 344 of 345 participants) and 99.13% (94.27-99.87; 114 of 115) in Vi-TT recipients which indicates that Vi-DT vaccine is non-inferior to Vi-TT vaccine. In safety aspect, 16.81% of total subject had at least one solicited adverse reaction and 22.61% of the Vi-TT participants experienced at least one solicited adverse reaction with most of them being local adverse reactions. None of the enrolled participants reported serious adverse events. Our study shows that a single dose of the Vi-DT vaccine is immunogenic, safe to administer and non-inferior to the Vi-TT vaccine four weeks after vaccination.

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