Multi-drug resistant Typhoid fever (resistant to previously used chloramphenicol, ampicillin, amoxicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) has been commonly described in the South East Asia region and a recent report suggests that the salmonella typhi have reduced response to fluoroquinolones (nalidixic acid-resistant). The optimum treatment protocol for this type of serovar has not been established. This study compared different antimicrobial regimens for the treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever which was conducted in the medicine ward of Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) and outdoor setting in private practice in Dhaka metropolitan city, Mymensingh and Sylhet town from January 2017 to December 2017. Bangladeshi adults with uncomplicated typhoid fever were included in this an open-label randomized controlled trial. Ciprofloxacin (20mg/kg of body weight/day for 14 days), azithromycin (20mg/kg/day for 14 days), and Cefixime (16mg/kg/day for 14 days) were compared. Of the 81 enrolled patients, 62 were eligible for analysis (61 S. enterica serovar Typhi, 1 Salmonella enterica serovar paratyphi A). Of the S enterica serovar Typhi isolates, 88.7% (55/62) were MDR and 93.5% (58/62) were nalidixic acid resistant (NAR). The clinical cure rate was 62% (13/21) with ciprofloxacin, 71% (15/21) with Cefixime, and 85% (17/20) with azithromycin (p=0.053). The mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) fever clearance time for patients treated with azithromycin (5.8 days [5.1 to 6.5 days]) was shorter than that for patients treated with cefixime (7.1 days [6.2 to 8.1 days]) and ciprofloxacin (8.2 days [7.2 to 9.2 days]) (p<0.001). All three antibiotics were well tolerated. A 7-day course of azithromycin can be successfully used in uncomplicated typhoid fever due to isolates of MDR S enterica serovar Typhi.
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