Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the general population of Pakistan regarding typhoid conjugate vaccine: findings of a cross-sectional study


Muhammad Junaid Tahir, Musharaf Zaman, Junaid Saffi, Muhammad Sohaib Asghar, Waleed Tariq, Faizan Ahmed, Rabia Islam, Usman Shakeel Farooqui, Irfan Ullah, Muhammad Saqlain, Kaleem Ullah, Ali Ahmed


Typhoid fever, a common enteric disease in Pakistan, caused by Salmonella typhi, is becoming an extended drug-resistant organism and is preventable through the typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV). Public adherence to preventive measures is influenced by knowledge and attitude toward the vaccine. This study investigates the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the general population of Pakistan toward TCV. The differences in mean scores and factors associated with typhoid conjugate vaccine knowledge, attitudes, and practices were investigated. A total of 918 responses were received with a mean age of 25.9 ± 9.6, 51% were women, and 59.6% had graduation-level education. The majority of them responded that vaccines prevent illness (85.3%) and decrease mortality and disability (92.6%), and typhoid could be prevented by vaccination (86.7%). In total, 77.7 and 80.8% considered TCV safe and effective, respectively. Of 389 participants with children, 53.47% had vaccinated children, according to the extended program on immunization (EPI). Higher family income has a higher odds ratio (OR) for willingness toward booster dose of TCV [crude odds ratio (COR) = 4.920, p-value <0.01; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.853, value of p <0.001], and negative attitude regarding the protective effect of TCV has less willingness toward the booster dose with statistical significance (COR = 0.388, value of p = 0.017; aOR = 0.198, value of p = 0.011). The general population of Pakistan had a good level of knowledge about the benefits of TCV, and attitude and practices are in favor of the usage of TCV. However, a few religious misconceptions are prevalent in public requiring the efforts to overcome them to promote the usage of vaccines to prevent the disease and antibiotic resistance.

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