Ghulam Shabbir Laghari, Zahid Hussain, Syed Zohaib Maroof Hussain, Haresh Kumar, Syed Mohammad Mazhar Uddin, and Aatera Haq
Typhoid fever is a major infectious disease among the pediatric population of Pakistan. With inappropriate use of antibiotics and rising trends of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extended drug-resistant (XDR) typhoid, it is becoming a public health emergency. This study evaluated the current trends in antibiotic susceptibilities to Salmonella (S) typhi and paratyphi A, B, and C in southern Pakistan. This cross-sectional study, conducted in the Pediatrics Department, Civil Hospital, Jamshoro from July to December 2018, included children with S. typhi and S. paratyphi A and B strains isolated from the laboratory-based culture of blood samples. There were 223 (81.1%) children with S. typhi and 52 (18.9%) with S. paratyphi isolates. Their mean age was 5 ± 3 years. The most common age group with S. typhi strains was two to five years (n = 102; 37.1%). Previous trials of antibiotics were taken by 162 (58.9%) children; 65 (40.1%) of these were physician-prescribed. Cefixime was most commonly taken (66.6%), followed by ciprofloxacin (33.3%). Cefixime and ceftriaxone showed 60.9% and 65.8% sensitivity, respectively. Ciprofloxacin sensitivity was seen in 50.1% S. typhi isolates. There were six (2.6%) cases of MDR typhoid and two (0.9%) cases of XDR typhoid. Resistance to second-line antityphoid agents is increasing. Therefore, there is a need to modify prescribing behavior. The outbreak of XDR typhoid among children is an alarming public health concern for Pakistan. Widespread antibiotic stewardship programs must be conducted.
Click here to read the article, published in Cureus.