Tin Ohn Myat, Khine Mar Oo, Hla Kye Mone, Wah Win Htike, Ambarish Biswas, Rachel F. Hannaway, David R. Murdoch, James E. Ussher, John A. Crump
Data on causes of community-onset bloodstream infection in Myanmar are scarce. We aimed to identify etiological agents of bloodstream infections and patterns of antimicrobial resistance among febrile adolescents and adults attending Yangon General Hospital (YGH), Yangon, Myanmar. We recruited patients ≥12 years old with fever ≥38°C who attended YGH from 5 October 2015 through 4 October 2016. A standardized clinical history and physical examination was performed. Provisional diagnoses and vital status at discharge was recorded. Blood was collected for culture, bloodstream isolates were identified, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed. Using whole-genome sequencing, we identified antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of Enterobacteriaceae and sequence types of Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcus agalactiae. Among 947 participants, 90 (9.5%) had bloodstream infections (BSI) of which 82 (91.1%) were of community-onset. Of 91 pathogens isolated from 90 positive blood cultures, we identified 43 (47.3%) Salmonella enterica including 33 (76.7%) serovar Typhi and 10 (23.3%) serovar Paratyphi A; 20 (22.0%) Escherichia coli; 7 (7.7%) Klebsiella pneumoniae; 6 (6.6%), Staphylococcus aureus; 4 (4.4%) yeasts; and 1 (1.1%) each of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Streptococcus agalactiae. Of 70 Enterobacteriaceae, 62 (88.6%) were fluoroquinolone-resistant. Among 27 E. coli and K. pneumoniae, 18 (66.6%) were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producers, and 1 (3.7%) each were AmpC beta-lactamase- and carbapenemase-producers. Fluoroquinolone resistance was associated predominantly with mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region. blaCTX-M-15 expression was common among ESBL-producers. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus was not detected. Fluoroquinolone-resistant, but not multiple drug-resistant, typhoidal S. enterica was the leading cause of community-onset BSI at a tertiary hospital in Yangon, Myanmar. Fluoroquinolone and extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance was common among other Enterobactericeae. Our findings inform empiric management of severe febrile illness in Yangon and indicate that measures to prevent and control enteric fever are warranted. We suggest ongoing monitoring and efforts to mitigate antimicrobial resistance among community-onset pathogens.
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