Typhoid fever: issues in laboratory detection, treatment options & concerns in management in developing countries.


Veeraraghavan B, Pragasam AK, Bakthavatchalam YD, Ralph R.


Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi (resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and cotrimoxazole), was significantly reduced with the increased usage of fluoroquinolones and azithromycin. This has led to declining multidrug resistance rates in India with increasing ciprofloxacin nonsusceptibility rates and clinical failures due to azithromycin. However, for the available agents such as ceftriaxone, azithromycin and fluoroquinolones, the dose and duration for treatment is undefined. The ongoing clinical trials for typhoid management are expected to recommend the defined dose and duration for better clinical outcome. We made an attempt to summarize the issues in laboratory detection, treatment options and responses, and the concerns in clinical practice seen in the developing countries.


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