Typhoid fever control in the 21st century: where are we now?


Megan E Carey, Naina S McCann, Malick M Gibani


Purpose of review: Momentum for achieving widespread control of typhoid fever has been growing over the past decade. Typhoid conjugate vaccines represent a potentially effective tool to reduce the burden of disease in the foreseeable future and new data have recently emerged to better frame their use-case.

Recent findings: We describe how antibiotic resistance continues to pose a major challenge in the treatment of typhoid fever, as exemplified by the emergence of azithromycin resistance and the spread of Salmonella Typhi strains resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. We review efficacy and effectiveness data for TCVs, which have been shown to have high-level efficacy (≥80%) against typhoid fever in diverse field settings. Data from randomized controlled trials and observational studies of TCVs are reviewed herein. Finally, we review data from multicountry blood culture surveillance studies that have provided granular insights into typhoid fever epidemiology. These data are becoming increasingly important as countries decide how best to introduce TCVs into routine immunization schedules and determine the optimal delivery strategy.

Summary: Continued advocacy is needed to address the ongoing challenge of typhoid fever to improve child health and tackle the rising challenge of antimicrobial resistance.

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