Bratati Mukhopadhyay, Dipika Sur, Sanjukta Sen Gupta, NK Ganguly
Enteric fever is a common but serious disease that affects mostly children and adolescents in the developing countries. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi remains responsible for most of the disease episodes; however, S. Paratyphi A has also been reported as an emerging infectious agent of concern. The control measures for the disease must encompass early diagnosis, surveillance and vaccine to protect against the disease. Sanitation and hygiene play a major role in reducing the burden of enteric diseases as well. The current status of diagnostics, the surveillance practices in the recent past and the vaccine development efforts have been taken into account for suggesting effective prevention and control measures. However, the challenges in all these aspects persist and cause hindrance in the implementation of the available tools. Hence, an integrative approach and a comprehensive policy framework are required to be in place for the prevention, control and elimination of typhoid fevers.
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