Knowledge of the aetiological agents and its susceptibility to antimicrobial agents enables the clinician to initiate appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy and guides diagnostic procedures. The aims of the study were to identify prevalence of bacterial pathogens causing sepsis and observe their antimicrobial resistance trends in hospitalized patients. A prospective cohort study was conducted on patients of sepsis admitted at a university hospital over a period of six months. Pathogens were identified by morphological, biochemical and serological tests as per the American Society for Microbiology. Antibacterial sensitivity of bacterial strains isolated from clinically diagnosed sepsis was carried out by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and interpreted according Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The data were analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 16.0 (SPSS 16.0, Chicago, IL, USA). Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (63.5%) and Staphylococcus aureus (23.1%) were the most frequently isolated Gram positive bacteria. Acinetobacter species (31%) and Salmonella typhi (24.1%) were the most frequently isolated Gram negative bacteria. Coagulase negative Staphylococcus showed significant resistance to ciprofloxacin and tetracycline. Acinetobacter species showed significant resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin and amoxiclav. Salmonella typhi showed significant resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin, cefotaxime, netilmicin and, tetracycline. Escherichia coli showed significant resistance to ampicillin and netilmicin. All the stains of Staphylococcus aureus were resistant to amoxicillin. Coagulase negative Staphylococcus and Acinetobacter species were predominant Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, respectively, causing sepsis. Increasing rates of bacterial resistance to commonly use antimicrobial agents were observed.
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