The Surveillance for Enteric Fever in Asia Project (SEAP), Severe Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa (SETA), Surveillance of Enteric Fever in India (SEFI), and Strategic Typhoid Alliance Across Africa and Asia (STRATAA) Population-based Enteric Fever Studies: A Review of Methodological Similarities and Differences


Megan E Carey, William R MacWright, Justin Im, James E Meiring, Malick M Gibani, Se Eun Park, Ashley Longley, Hyon Jin Jeon, Caitlin Hemlock, Alexander T Yu, Abdramane Soura, Kristen Aiemjoy, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Mekonnen Terferi, Sahidul Islam, Octavie Lunguya, Jan Jacobs, Melita Gordon, Christiane Dolecek, Stephen Baker, Virginia E Pitzer, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Susan Tonks, John D Clemens, Kashmira Date, Firdausi Qadri, Robert S Heyderman, Samir K Saha, Buddha Basnyat, Iruka N Okeke, Farah N Qamar, Merryn Voysey, Stephen Luby, Gagandeep Kang, Jason Andrews, Andrew J Pollard, Jacob John, Denise Garrett, Florian Marks


Building on previous multicountry surveillance studies of typhoid and others salmonelloses such as the Diseases of the Most Impoverished program and the Typhoid Surveillance in Africa Project, several ongoing blood culture surveillance studies are generating important data about incidence, severity, transmission, and clinical features of invasive Salmonella infections in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. These studies are also characterizing drug resistance patterns in their respective study sites. Each study answers a different set of research questions and employs slightly different methodologies, and the geographies under surveillance differ in size, population density, physician practices, access to healthcare facilities, and access to microbiologically safe water and improved sanitation. These differences in part reflect the heterogeneity of the epidemiology of invasive salmonellosis globally, and thus enable generation of data that are useful to policymakers in decision-making for the introduction of typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs). Moreover, each study is evaluating the large-scale deployment of TCVs, and may ultimately be used to assess post-introduction vaccine impact. The data generated by these studies will also be used to refine global disease burden estimates. It is important to ensure that lessons learned from these studies not only inform vaccination policy, but also are incorporated into sustainable, low-cost, integrated vaccine-preventable disease surveillance systems.

Click here to read the article, published in Clinical Infectious Diseases.