Chanmi Kim, Iqra Latif, Durga P Neupane, Gi Young Lee, Ryan S Kwon, Alia Batool, Qasim Ahmed, Muhammad Usman Qamar, Jeongmin Song
Sepsis is a syndromic response to infections and is becoming an emerging threat to the public health sector, particularly in developing countries. Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi), the cause of typhoid fever, is one primary cause of pediatric sepsis in typhoid endemic areas. Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) S. Typhi is more common among pediatric patients, which is responsible for over 90% of the reported XDR typhoid cases, but the majority of antibiotic resistance studies available have been carried out using S. Typhi isolates from adult patients. Here, we characterized antibiotic-resistance profiles of XDR S. Typhi isolates from a medium size cohort of pediatric typhoid patients (n = 45, 68.89% male and 31.11% female) and determined antibiotic-resistance-related gene signatures associated with common treatment options to typhoid fever patients of 18 XDR S. Typhi representing all 45 isolates. Their ages were 1-13 years old: toddlers aging 1-2 years old (n = 9, 20%), pre-schoolers aging 3-5 years old (n = 17, 37.78%), school-age children aging 6-12 years old (n = 17, 37.78%), and adolescents aging 13-18 years old (n = 2, 4.44%). Through analyzing blaTEM1, dhfR7, sul1, and catA1genes for multidrug-resistance, qnrS, gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE for fluoroquinolone-resistance, blaCTX-M-15 for XDR, and macAB and acrAB efflux pump system-associated genes, we showed the phenotype of the XDR S. Typhi isolates matches with their genotypes featured by the acquisitions of the genes blaTEM1, dhfR7, sul1, catA1, qnrS, and blaCTX-M-15 and a point mutation on gyrA. This study informs the molecular basis of antibiotic-resistance among recent S. Typhi isolates from pediatric septicemia patients, therefore providing insights into the development of molecular detection methods and treatment strategies for XDR S. Typhi.
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