The genomic characterization of Salmonella Paratyphi A from an outbreak of enteric fever in Vadodara, India


Joana Pereira-Dias, Neelam Taneja, Jaspreet Mahindroo, Geeti Maheshwari, Padma J. Patel, Trang Nguyen Hoang Thu, Jacqui Keane, Zoe A. Dyson, Stephen Baker, Elli Mylona


Salmonella enterica Typhi (S. Typhi) and Paratyphi A (S. Paratyphi A) are the causative agents of enteric fever, a systemic human disease with a burden of 300 000 cases per year in India. The majority of enteric fever cases are associated with S. Typhi, resulting in a paucity of data regarding S. Paratyphi A, specifically with respect to genomic surveillance and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Here, we exploited whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to identify S. Paratyphi A genotypes and AMR determinants associated with an outbreak of S. Paratyphi A in Vadodara, India, from December 2018 to December 2019. In total 117 S. Paratyphi A were isolated and genome sequenced, most were genotype 2.4.2 (72.6 % of all cases), which is the globally dominant genotype. The remainder were genotype 2.3 (25.6 %), while only two isolates belonged to genotype 2.4.1. A single base-pair mutation in gyrA, associated with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones, was present in all of the outbreak isolates; with 74.35 % of isolates having a S83F substitution and the remainder having an S83Y substitution. Our surveillance study suggests that S. Paratyphi A is an emergent pathogen in South Asia, which may become increasingly relevant with the introduction of Vi conjugate vaccines.

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