Non-typhoidal Salmonellae are Gram negative bacilli commonly causing self-limiting gastroenteritis, representing a public health issue particularly in tropical countries. Further, the epidemiology of invasive infection by non-typhoidal Salmonella species is poorly understood. Herein, we presented a case of an unusual Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Altona epidural abscess that cause osteomyelitis and psoas abscess in a 52-year-old Japanese man. To ensure adequate antibiotics penetration into the epidural space, the patient was treated with antibiotics in doses similar to those administered for meningitis. We also reviewed the literature on patients who developed non-typhoidal Salmonella epidural abscesses, and we found 10 other previously reported cases. Salmonella Enteritidis was the pathogen most commonly identified, similar to gastroenteritis. More surveillance of non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars, especially in cases of severe infection, and investigation of antibiotic penetration rate into the epidural space are warranted to decide the best treatment course.
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