Severity of Salmonella infection among sickle cell diseases pediatric patients: Description of the infection pattern


AlFawaz T, Alzumar O, AlShahrani D, Alshehri M


Introduction: Sickle cell disease (SCD) affects millions worldwide. It has a spectrum of clinical manifestations. However, SCD is more prone to have invasive infection compared with normal individual, and one of the main pathogen of concern is salmonella, where the individual with SCD is more susceptible to salmonella infection. Furthermore, several distinct clinical syndromes can develop in children infected with salmonella, depending on both host factors and the specific serotype involved.

Objectives: We aim to describe the infection patterns and whole range of potential complications in children with SCD exposed to invasive salmonella infection.

Method: This is a retrospective observational cohort study which was conducted at King Fahad Medical City (KFMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between 2012 and 2018. All sickle cell patients who are exposed to invasive salmonella infections and treated in our hospital over the last 6 years were included in our study.

Results: Six patients were enrolled in the study, five males and one female with ratio of (M: F) 5:1, age range from 20 months-14 years, and the diagnosis at admission were as follows: (three as vasooclusive crisis, three as infection) with different kind of infections (three sepsis, three septic arthritis, four osteomyelitis, one meningitis, one myositis, one periorbital cellulitis, one diskitis), where three (50%) suffered multiple sites of infections and the other three (50%) with one site of infection, two (50%) of osteomyelitis patients suffered multifocal infection. Species identification is as follows: (three group D, one group C, and two were not specified), only two occasions where resistant to ciprofloxacin while all others were pan sensitive. Fever was prolonged (take more than seven days to subside even with appropriate therapy and intervention) in five out of six.

Conclusions: Multiple site of infection, sever osteomylitis, and delay in fever response consolidated the fact of high virulence of salmonella in SCD patients. We did not encounter significant resistant rate to both quinolone and cephalosporin.

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