Risk factors for persistent infection of non-Typhoidal Salmonella in poultry farms, North Central Nigeria


Abdullahi O. Sanni, Joshua Onyango, Abdulkadir Usman, Latifah Abdulkarim, Annelize Jonker, and Folorunso O. Fasina


Salmonellosis is a bacterial zoonosis causing an array of health conditions. Non-typhoidal salmonellosis (NTS) has a discrete adaptation to certain animals; in poultry, pullorum and fowl typhoid are its primary disease manifestations. The diseases are prevalent in Nigerian poultry and have been well-studied in Nigeria, but less so in North Central Nigeria (NCN). Using field sampling, laboratory methods and a semi-structured questionnaire for 1000 poultry farms in NCN, we explored the incidence and risk factors for the persistence of NTS infection in poultry. Approximately 41.6% of the farms had experienced NTS over the last 18 months. Farm experience of NTS moderately predicted awareness of salmonellosis. Increasing stock in smallholder farms, self-mixing of concentrate on the farm, usage of stream water, pen odour, non-adherence and partial adherence of farms to recommended poultry vaccination against pullorum and fowl typhoid and lack of and non-adherence to biosecurity were identified risk factors that increased the odds of NTS infection in poultry. Antibiotic use practice may have reduced the isolation rate of NTS, yet NTS continues to challenge poultry farms in Nigeria. Identified risk practices must be mitigated intentionally and biosecurity and hygiene must be improved to reduce the burden of NTS.

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