Progress in Typhoid Fever Epidemiology


John A Crump


Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) is the cause of typhoid fever and a human host-restricted organism. Our understanding of the global burden of typhoid fever has improved in recent decades, with both an increase in the number and geographic representation of high-quality typhoid fever incidence studies, and greater sophistication of modeling approaches. The 2017 World Health Organization Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization recommendation for the introduction of typhoid conjugate vaccines for infants and children aged >6 months in typhoid-endemic countries is likely to require further improvements in our understanding of typhoid burden at the global and national levels. Furthermore, the recognition of the critical and synergistic role of water and sanitation improvements in concert with vaccine introduction emphasize the importance of improving our understanding of the sources, patterns, and modes of transmission of Salmonella Typhi in diverse settings.

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