Population pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in Pakistani patients suffering from enteric fever


Rabia SaleemHumaira Majeed KhanMuhammad UsmanMuhammad Imran KhokharHuma RasheedMateen AbbasRizwan Rasul KhanMadiha ZamanZunair Maqsood


Background: Ciprofloxacin, a potent carboxy-fluoroquinolone is proved to be effective against some resistant strains of Gram-negative bacteria. Being a hydrophilic drug, it is primarily excreted through the kidney; almost 66% of the clearance from the body occurs through glomerular filtration. Therefore, renal status of the patient can have a significant effect on ciprofloxacin clearance.

Materials and methods: A total of 158 samples were collected from 32 patients treated with ciprofloxacin in the Surgical Unit-I of Lahore General Hospital, Pakistan. The data was used for the development of a population pharmacokinetic model by using non-linear mixed-effect modeling (NONMEM) software. The influence of different covariates (age, sex, body weight, serum creatinine (SeCR), and creatinine clearance (CRCL)) was observed on ciprofloxacin clearance (CL) and volume of distribution (Vd) by stepwise covariate modeling (SCM).

Results: A one-compartment model was used for ciprofloxacin population pharma-cokinetik (popPK) analysis, and the values for ciprofloxacin CL and Vd in the final model were estimated at 19.8 L/h and 74.9 L, respectively. Among all the tested covariates, only CRCL was proven to have significant influence on ciprofloxacin CL.

Conclusion: A strong relationship was found between the ciprofloxacin CL and renal status of the patients. The model can be used for dose tailoring in patients based on their CRCL values before the start of therapy with ciprofloxacin among Pakistani patients.

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