The potential association between appendectomy and non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection has not been elucidated. We hypothesized that appendectomy may be associated with gut vulnerability to NTS. The data were retrospectively collected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to describe the incidence rates of NTS infection requiring hospital admission among patients with and without an appendectomy. A total of 208,585 individuals aged ≥18 years with an appendectomy were enrolled from January 2000 to December 2012, and compared with a control group of 208,585 individuals who had never received an appendectomy matched by propensity score (1:1) by index year, age, sex, occupation, and comorbidities. An appendectomy was defined by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification Procedure Codes. The main outcome was patients who were hospitalized for NTS. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Two sensitivity analyses were conducted for cross-validation. Of the 417,170 participants (215,221 (51.6%) male), 208,585 individuals (50.0%) had an appendectomy, and 112 individuals developed NTS infection requiring hospitalization. In the fully adjusted multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model, the appendectomy group had an increased risk of NTS infection (adjusted HR (aHR), 1.61; 95% CI, 1.20-2.17). Females and individuals aged 18 to 30 years with a history of appendectomy had a statistically higher risk of NTS than the control group (aHR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.26-2.93 and aHR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.41-5.07). In this study, appendectomy was positively associated with subsequent hospitalization for NTS. The mechanism behind this association remains uncertain and needs further studies to clarify the interactions between appendectomy and NTS.
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