Laboratory Diagnosis of Paratyphoid Fever: Opportunity of Surface Plasmon Resonance


Dina M Alhaj-QasemMohammad A I Al-HatamlehAhmad Adebayo IrekeolaMuhammad Fazli KhalidRohimah MohamudAziah IsmailFatin Hamimi Mustafa


Paratyphoid fever is caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi (A, B and C), and contributes significantly to global disease burden. One of the major challenges in the diagnosis of paratyphoid fever is the lack of a proper gold standard. Given the absence of a licensed vaccine against S. Paratyphi, this diagnostic gap leads to inappropriate antibiotics use, thus, enhancing antimicrobial resistance. In addition, the symptoms of paratyphoid overlap with other infections, including the closely related typhoid fever. Since the development and utilization of a standard, sensitive, and accurate diagnostic method is essential in controlling any disease, this review discusses a new promising approach to aid the diagnosis of paratyphoid fever. This advocated approach is based on the use of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor and DNA probes to detect specific nucleic acid sequences of S. Paratyphi. We believe that this SPR-based genoassay can be a potent alternative to the current conventional diagnostic methods, and could become a rapid diagnostic tool for paratyphoid fever.

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