Incidence and Risk Factors for Notifiable Typhoid and Paratyphoid in Taiwan during the Period 2011-2020


Fu-Huang Lin, Bao-Chung Chen, Yu-Ching Chou, Chi-Jeng Hsieh, Chia-Peng Yu


The risk of the geographic transmission of emerging infectious diseases through air travel varies greatly. In this study, we collected data on cases of food-borne diseases between the years 2011 and 2020 in Taiwan to access the epidemiological features, differences, and trends in domestic and imported cases of typhoid and paratyphoid in terms of patient sex, age, month of confirmation, and area of residence. In this study, we made use of the open data website provided by Taiwan’s Centers for Disease Control (TCDC) to extract the reported numbers of cases of typhoid and paratyphoid between January and December from 2011 to 2020 for comparison. Univariate analysis was performed using the Chi-square test for categorical variables. Fisher’s exact test was performed if an expected frequency was less than 5. A total of 226 typhoid cases and 61 paratyphoid cases were analyzed from the database. The incidences of typhoid and paratyphoid per million of the population were 0.42-2.11 and 0-0.39, respectively. There was a significant difference in the incidence of the diseases between the age groups (p = 0.019), with a gradual increase in the 20-40 years group. A distinct seasonal (between fall and spring) variation was also observed (p = 0.012). There were 34 cases of children with typhoid in the period 2011-2015 and 12 cases of children with typhoid in the period 2016-2020. During these periods, there were two cases of paratyphoid. This study indicated that the risk of children suffering from typhoid has been significantly reduced in the last five years. Furthermore, we found that more women have acquired typhoid and paratyphoid than men, and that living in the Taipei metropolitan area and the northern area was a potential risk factor. Furthermore, the number of imported cases of typhoid (n = 3) and paratyphoid (n = 0) reported during the COVID-19 pandemic was lower than that reported for the same disease from 2011 to 2020. More typhoid and paratyphoid cases were imported from Indonesia, India, Myanmar, and Cambodia. This study represents the first report on confirmed cases of acquired typhoid and paratyphoid from surveillance data from Taiwan’s CDC for the period 2011-2020. This study also demonstrates that the cases of typhoid and paratyphoid decreased in Taiwan during the COVID pandemic. Big data were used in this study, which may inform future surveillance and research efforts in Taiwan.

Keywords: Taiwan; domestic; epidemiology; imported; paratyphoid; typhoid.

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