Debroy R, Miryala SK, Naha A, Anbarasu A, Ramaiah S
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi, a human enteric pathogen causing typhoid fever, developed resistance to multiple antibiotics over the years. The current study was dedicated to understand the multi-drug resistance (MDR) mechanism of S. enterica serovar Typhi CT18 and to identify potential drug targets that could be exploited for new drug discovery. We have employed gene interaction network analysis for 44 genes which had 275 interactions. Clustering analysis resulted in three highly interconnecting clusters (C1-C3). Functional enrichment analysis revealed the presence of drug target alteration and three different multi-drug efflux pumps in the bacteria that were associated with antibiotic resistance. We found seven genes (arnA,B,C,D,E,F,T) conferring resistance to Cationic Anti-Microbial Polypeptide (CAMP) molecules by membrane Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) modification, while macB was observed to be an essential controlling hub of the network and played a crucial role in MacAB-TolC efflux pump. Further, we identified five genes (mdtH, mdtM, mdtG, emrD and mdfA) which were involved in Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) efflux system and acrAB contributed towards AcrAB-TolC efflux pump. All three efflux pumps were seen to be highly dependent on tolC gene. The five genes, namely tolC, macB, acrA, acrB and mdfA which were involved in multiple resistance pathways, can act as potential drug targets for successful treatment strategies. Therefore, this study has provided profound insights into the MDR mechanism in S. Typhi CT18. Our results will be useful for experimental biologists to explore new leads for S. enterica.
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