Five-year Audit of Infectious Diseases at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan


Naseem Salahuddin, Muhammad Khalid, Naila Baig-Ansari, and Sundus Iftikhar



To estimate the burden of infectious diseases and the seasonality of mosquito-borne diseases seen at The Indus Hospital, Karachi (TIH).


We performed a retrospective data analysis of all infectious diseases (ID) cases, retrieved from medical records over a five-year period starting from 1 January 2012 till 31 December 2016 at The Indus Hospital (TIH), which is a 150-bed, charity-based, tertiary-care health facility. The collected data has been categorized into three groups: (A) public health-related diseases, including community and environmental IDs, i.e., mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue, respiratory tract infections, diarrheal diseases, typhoid, and hepatitis; (B) systemic infection related IDs that target individual anatomical or physiological systems such as the respiratory tract, urinary tract, skin and soft tissue, and the cardiac system, and lastly, those IDs which are (C) programmatically managed at TIH, namely cases from the tuberculosis (TB), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and malaria clinics, and the rabies prevention center. As the study is an audit, ethical approval was waived by the institutional review board (IRB).


Overall data from 71,815 patients were assessed. In the public health group (A), the main bulk of diseases were due to malaria, tuberculosis, respiratory tract infections (upper and lower), and diarrheal diseases in both males and females in descending order; there was preponderance of malaria, respiratory tract infections, and diarrheal diseases in males, and of tuberculosis among females. Among the systemic diseases group (B), urinary tract infections (UTIs) had a disproportionately high incidence, followed by skin and soft tissue infections, while bone and joint infections and diabetic foot had equal incidence. In the programmatic group (C), the highest number of cases seen was dog bites followed by drug-sensitive TB. Overall, the six most common infections were malaria, cases of dog bites, tuberculosis, respiratory tract infections, diarrheal diseases, and hepatitis C. More women than men had TB; diarrheal disease and respiratory tract infections were more common in children. UTIs were the most common systemic infections among both men and women.


There is a great need to have an effective surveillance mechanism of preventable diseases at the national level. Our study highlights the diversity of cases that should direct medical curriculum development, post-graduate training, and health services improvement.

Click here to view the article, published in Cureus.