Enteric Fever Diagnosis: Current Challenges and Future Directions


Durga P NeupaneHari P Dulal, and Jeongmin Song


Enteric fever is a life-threatening systemic febrile disease caused by Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi (S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi). Unfortunately, the burden of the disease remains high primarily due to the global spread of various drug-resistant Salmonella strains despite continuous advancement in the field. An accurate diagnosis is critical for effective control of the disease. However, enteric fever diagnosis based on clinical presentations is challenging due to overlapping symptoms with other febrile illnesses that are also prevalent in endemic areas. Current laboratory tests display suboptimal sensitivity and specificity, and no diagnostic methods are available for identifying asymptomatic carriers. Several research programs have employed systemic approaches to identify more specific biomarkers for early detection and asymptomatic carrier detection. This review discusses the pros and cons of currently available diagnostic tests for enteric fever, the advancement of research toward improved diagnostic tests, and the challenges of discovering new ideal biomarkers and tests.

Click here to read the article, published in Pathogens.