Effectiveness of typhoid conjugate vaccine in Zimbabwe used in response to an outbreak among children and young adults: A matched case control study


Maria S Lightowler, Portia Manangazira, Fabienne Nackers, Michel Van Herp, Isaac Phiri, Kuziwa Kuwenyi, Isabella Panunzi, Daniela Garone, Farayi Marume, Andrew Tarupiwa, Eva Ferreras, Clemence Duri, Francisco J Luquero


Background: Zimbabwe suffers from regular outbreaks of typhoid fever (TF), worse since 2017. Most cases were in Harare and a vaccination campaign with Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine (TCV) was conducted in March 2019. The vaccine effectiveness (VE) was assessed against culture-confirmed S. Typhi in children six months to 15 years and in individuals six months to 45 years in Harare.

Methods: A matched case-control study was conducted in three urban suburbs of Harare targeted by the TCV vaccination campaign. Suspected TF cases were enrolled prospectively in four health facilities and were matched to facility (1:1) and community (1:5) controls.

Findings: Of 504 suspected cases from July 2019 to March 2020, 148 laboratory-confirmed TF cases and 153 controls confirmed-negative were identified. One hundred and five (47 aged six months to 15 years) cases were age, sex, and residence matched with 105 facility-based controls while 96 cases were matched 1:5 by age, sex, and immediate-neighbour with 229 community controls. The adjusted VE against confirmed TF was 75% (95%CI: 1-94, p = 0.049) compared to facility controls, and 84% (95%CI: 57-94, p < 0.001) compared to community controls in individuals six months to 15 years. The adjusted VE against confirmed TF was 46% (95%CI: 26-77, p = 0.153) compared to facility controls, and 67% (95%CI: 35-83, p = 0.002) compared to community controls six months to 45 years old.

Interpretation: This study confirms that one vaccine dose of TCV is effective to control TF in children between six months and 15 years old in an African setting.

Click here to read article published in Science Direct