Said Amin, Mohammad Noor, Fawad Rahim, Muhammad Yasir Khan, Raza Ullah
In South Asia, infectious diseases are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Malaria, typhoid, and dengue are the most common infectious diseases, and patients may be co-infected with these diseases, resulting in diagnostic and treatment dilemmas. Dengue is caused by the Arboviridae family of viruses and is transmitted by Aedes aegypti. Dengue virus has four serotypes and the symptoms of dengue fever mimic those of other infectious diseases such as malaria, chikungunya, Zika virus disease, influenza A, enteric fever, and coronavirus disease 2019, which are also prevalent in areas of frequent dengue fever outbreak. Dengue fever is characterized by fever, severe myalgia, retro-orbital pain, skin rashes, and bone pain, which is why dengue fever is also referred to as breakbone fever. Patients with secondary dengue virus infection more commonly present with abdominal pain when compared with those with primary dengue virus infection. Salmonella typhi causes enteric fever, which is a human infection with no animal reservoir, but the symptoms of enteric fever closely resemble those of dengue fever. Concurrent infections with multiple organisms are especially difficult to diagnose. In this report, we present the case of a 15-year-old boy from Peshawar, Pakistan, who was co-infected with the dengue virus and extensively drug-resistant Salmonella typhi. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of co-infection with dengue virus and extensively drug-resistant Salmonella typhi.
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