Clinical Perspectives of Multiple and Extensively Drug-Resistant Typhoid; result from a tertiary care hospital from Pakistan


Samina FidaHala MansoorSaba SaifJaved Iqbal, and Arif Qayyum Khan


Introduction: Typhoid fever remains a problem in developing countries, including Pakistan. The emergence of multidrug-resistant and, since 2016, of extensively drug-resistant cases is a continuous challenge for health care workers. The COVID-19 pandemic is making management more difficult.

Methodology: In the present study, a total of 52 confirmed cases of typhoid have been studied during 2019. Detailed clinical features, complications and, lab findings were studied. Typhoid culture and sensitivity were recorded and patients were treated accordingly. Patients were asked about risk factors to aim at informing prevention.

Results: Out of the 52 having blood culture positive for Salmonella Typhi 47 (90.4%) and Salmonella Paratyphi 5 (9.6%), 4 (7.7%) were sensitive to first-line (Non-resistant), 11 (21.2%) MDR and 37 (71.2%) patient were XDR. One case was resistant to azithromycin. Nausea, vomiting or, abdominal pain was present in 12 (23%), abdominal distension present in 9 (17.3%), abdominal tenderness in 8 (15.4%), hepatomegaly in 10 (19.2%) and, splenomegaly in 22 (42.3%).There were ultrasound abnormalities in 58% of patients and GI complications in 19% of patients. No significant difference was found in clinical findings and complications between resistant and non-resistant cases. Only 23-27% of patients were aware of typhoid prevention and vaccination measures.

Conclusions: The increasing prevalence of resistance and higher degree of complications seen in typhoid fever raises the concern further about prevention and effective infection management in the community as well as clinical settings. Moreover, judicial use of antibiotics is much needed in developing countries like Pakistan.

Click here to read the article, published in The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries.