Ceftriaxone Use Evaluation in Western Zone Tigray Hospitals, Ethiopia: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study


Tewodros Shegute, Mulugeta Hiruy, Haftom Hadush, Leake Gebremeskel


Background: Drug use evaluation is a systematic approach to determining the appropriateness of drug use, identifying drug therapy problems, and proposing interventions. Ceftriaxone is one of the most widely used drugs in hospitals, requiring the performance of drug use evaluation. This study was aimed at evaluating the appropriateness of ceftriaxone use at Kahsay Abera and Mearg hospitals in the Western zone of Tigray, Ethiopia.

Methods: An institution-based retrospective cross-sectional study design was conducted in both hospitals from December 2015 to August 2016 using standardized and pretested data collection formats. Systematic random sampling was used, and a total of 800 patients’ medication records (patients who took ceftriaxone) from both hospitals (400 each) were assessed in this study. Statistical analysis was performed by using the statistical package for social sciences (version 20).

Results: The overall appropriateness of ceftriaxone use in Kahsay Abera and Mearg hospitals was 247 (61.75%) and 252 (63.0%), respectively. The majority of inappropriate use of ceftriaxone was noted in indication errors at both Kahsay Abera (71.2%) and Mearg hospitals (52.0%). The treatment duration in Kahsay Abera (69%) and Mearg hospitals (88%) was in the range of 2-7 days. Mostly, a 2-gram ceftriaxone daily dose was prescribed in both Kahsay Abera and Mearg hospitals, accounting for 285 (71.25%) and 318 (79.5%), respectively. In this study, the top three diseases, indicated for ceftriaxone in both hospitals, were typhoid fever, urinary tract infection, and pneumonia in descending order. Among the medications coadministered with ceftriaxone, the top three coprescribed drugs with ceftriaxone in Kahsay Abera Hospital were metronidazole (17.25%), tramadol 68 (11.28%), and diclofenac (8.96%), but in Mearg Hospital, next to metronidazole, drugs like paracetamol and doxycycline were the most common coprescribed medicines along with ceftriaxone.

Conclusion: The appropriateness of ceftriaxone use in Kahsay Abera and Mearg hospitals was 247 (61.8%) and 252 (63%), respectively, in which about one-third of patients’ charts were not compliant with the standard treatment guidelines of Ethiopia for general hospitals. In Kahsay Abera and Mearg hospitals, the empiric use of ceftriaxone was 262 (65.5%) and 375 (93.8%), respectively.

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