A review of clinical profile, complications and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Salmonella Typhi isolates in children in Karachi


Saba Shahid, Marvi Mahesar, Nida Ghouri, Saba Noreen


Background: Enteric fever is a systemic infection caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, B, and C. There is an emergence of Typhoid fever caused by extensively drug-resistant Salmonella Typhi strain called XDR S.Typhi. This strain is resistant to recommended first-line antibiotics and cephalosporins. WHO estimated 5274 cases of XDR S.Typhi in Karachi from November 2016 to December 2019. This study aims to determine clinical course, complications and response to treatment of XDR S.Typhi among the pediatric population coming to Indus Hospital.

Method: We reviewed the records of children who had culture-proven XDR S.Typhi infection at Indus Hospital from July 2017 to December 2018. A pre-designed data abstraction form was used to record information about seasonality, demographic details, clinical features and course, treatment, complications and outcomes of the cases of XDR S.Typhi.

Results: The records of 680 children were reviewed. The median (IQR) age of the patients was 5 (2-8) years. More than half (n = 391, 57.5%) of the patients were males. The outcomes were recorded in 270 (40%) patients. Out of these, 234 (86.7%) children got cured within 14 days, while a delayed response to antibiotics was noted in 32 (11.9%) children. Seventy-six (29%) children recovered on a combination of meropenem and azithromycin, 72 (27%) got cured on azithromycin alone, while 15 (6%) responded to meropenem alone.

Conclusion: Our review indicated that children under 5 years of age were affected more with XDR S.Typhi. Azithromycin alone or in combination with meropenem were effective antibiotics for treating XDR S.Typhi in children.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Children; Seasonality; XDR S.Typhi.

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