Kun Xiong, Zhijin Chen, Chunyue Zhu, Jianhua Li, Xiaomei Hu, Xiancai Rao, Yanguang Cong
Enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A has progressively increased in recent years and became a global health issue. Currently licensed typhoid vaccines do not confer adequate cross-immunoprotection against S. Paratyphi A infection. Therefore, vaccines specifically against enteric fever caused by S. Paratyphi A are urgently needed. In the present study, an attenuated vaccine strain was constructed from S. Paratyphi A CMCC50093 by the deletions of aroC and yncD. The obtained strain SPADD01 showed reduced survival within THP-1 cells and less bacterial burden in spleens and livers of infected mice compared with the wild-type strain. The 50% lethal doses of SPADD01 and the wild-type strain were assessed using a murine infection model. The virulence of SPADD01 is approximately 40,000-fold less than that of the wild-type strain. In addition, SPADD01 showed an excellent immunogenicity in mouse model. Single intranasal inoculation elicited striking humoral and mucosal immune responses in mice and yielded effective protection against lethal challenge of the wild-type strain. A high level of cross-reactive humoral immune response against LPS of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was also detected in immunized mice. However, SPADD01 vaccination only conferred a low level of cross-protection against S. Typhi. Our data suggest that SPADD01 is a promising vaccine candidate against S. Paratyphi A infection and deserves further evaluation in clinical trial. To date, no study has demonstrated a good cross-protection between serovars of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, suggesting that the dominant protective antigens of both serovars are likely different and need to be defined in future study.
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