Serum Bactericidal Assays To Evaluate Typhoidal and Nontyphoidal Salmonella Vaccines


Mary Adetinuke Boyd, Sharon M. Tennant, Venant A. Saague, Raphael Simon, Khitam Muhsen, Girish Ramachandran, Alan S. Cross, James E. Galen, Marcela F. Pasetti, and Myron M. Levine


Invasive Salmonella infections for which improved or new vaccines are being developed include enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, and Paratyphi B and sepsis and meningitis in young children in sub-Saharan Africa caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars, particularly S. enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. Assays are needed to measure functional antibodies elicited by the new vaccines to assess their immunogenicities and potential protective capacities. We developed in vitro assays to quantify serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) activity induced by S. Typhi, S. Paratyphi A, S. Typhimurium, and S. Enteritidis vaccines in preclinical studies. Complement from various sources was tested in assays designed to measure antibody-dependent complement-mediated killing. Serum from rabbits 3 to 4 weeks of age provided the best complement source compared to serum from pigs, goats, horses, bovine calves, or rabbits 8 to 12 weeks of age. For S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, and S. Typhi SBA assays to be effective, bacteria had to be harvested at log phase. In contrast, S. Paratyphi A was equally susceptible to killing whether it was grown to the stationary or log phase. The typhoidal serovars were more susceptible to complement-mediated killing than were the nontyphoidal serovars. Lastly, the SBA endpoint titers correlated with serum IgG anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) titers in mice immunized with mucosally administered S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, andS. Paratyphi A but not S. Typhi live attenuated vaccines. The SBA assay described here is a useful tool for measuring functional antibodies elicited by Salmonella vaccine candidates.


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