Enteric Fever and Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis—9th International Conference on Typhoid and Invasive NTS Disease, Bali, Indonesia, April 30–May 3, 2015


Mohammed Imran Khan, Cara Katrinak, Alexander Freeman, and Carlos Franco-Paredes


Invasive salmonellosis causes a spectrum of diseases, including enteric fever (i.e., typhoid and paratyphoid fever) and nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection. This group of bacterial pathogens continues to inflict a large burden of disease globally, especially in countries with low and middle incomes. No global control strategy yet exists because of multiple challenges, such as low availability of effective vaccines, poor access to clean water and sanitation, lack of regional or national data, and difficulties in scaling up interventions. Recent progress in vaccine development, technology transfer, and disease surveillance has increased prospects of typhoid fever control and eventual control of paratyphoid and NTS.

In response to these issues, the 9th International Conference on Typhoid and Invasive NTS Disease took place in Bali, Indonesia, during April 30–May 3, 2015. The Coalition against Typhoid Secretariat, based at the Sabin Vaccine Institute (Washington, DC, USA), partnered with PT Bio Farma, a vaccine manufacturer (Bandung, Indonesia), to convene ≈250 participants from 36 countries at a 4-day event sponsored by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (Seattle, WA, USA). Conference objectives were to inform the audience about progress made in the epidemiologic understanding of enteric fever and invasive NTS (iNTS) disease, in advancements in diagnostics and clinical management, and in the development and use of vaccines to prevent the diseases.


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