Cross-reactive multifunctional CD4+ T cell responses against Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A and Paratyphi B in humans following immunization with live oral typhoid vaccine Ty21a


Wahid, R.; Fresnay, S.; Levine, MM.; & Sztein, MB.


The live oral typhoid vaccine Ty21a elicits predominantly CD8+, as well as CD4+ T cells mediated immune responses.Clinical field studies showed that Ty21a is moderately effective against S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi B, but not S. Paratyphi A infections. In this study we describe the in depth characterization of S. Typhi, S. Paratyphi A and S. Paratyphi B cross-reactive CD4+ T cell responses elicited following immunization with Ty21a.PBMC samples were collected from 16 healthy volunteers before and 42/84days after Ty21a immunization and stimulated ex-vivo with Salmonella-infected targets.Multiparametric flow cytometry was used to detect the vaccine elicited Salmonella-specific responses in T effector/memory (TEM) and CD45RA+ T effector/memory (TEMRA) CD4+ cell subsets, by measuring CD4+ multifunctional (MF) cells that concomitantly produced IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, MIP-1β, IL-17A and/or expressed CD107a. Post-vaccination increases in S. Typhi-specific MF cells were observed in CD4+ TEMand TEMRA subsets which predominantly produced IFN-γ and/or TNF-α, while IL-2 was produced by a smaller cell subset.A small proportion of those MF cells also produced MIP-1β, IL-17A and expressed CD107a (a marker associated with cytotoxicity). Approximately one third of these specific MF cells have the potential to migrate to the gut mucosa, as evidenced by co-expression of the gut-homing molecule integrin α4β7.In contrast to our previous observations with CD8+T cells, MF CD4+ T cell responses to the different Salmonella serovars evaluated were similar in magnitude and characteristics.We conclude that although induction of cross-reactive CD4+ MF effector T cells suggest a possible role in Salmonella-immunity, these responses are unlikely to provide an immunological basis for the observed efficacy of Ty21a against S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi B, but not to S. Paratyphi A.

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