Changing Patterns in Enteric Fever Incidence and Increasing Antibiotic Resistance of Enteric Fever Isolates in the United States, 2008-2012


Kashmira A. Date, Anna E. Newton, Felicita Medalla, Anna Blackstock, LaTonia Richardson, Andre McCullough, Eric D. Mintz, and Barbara E. Mahon


Background: Enteric fever in the United States has been primarily associated with travel and with worrisome changes in global patterns of antimicrobial resistance. We present the first comprehensive report of National Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever Surveillance System (NTPFS) data for a 5-year period (2008–2012).

Methods: We reviewed data on laboratory-confirmed cases reported to NTPFS, and related antimicrobial susceptibility results of Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A isolates sent for testing by participating public health laboratories to CDC’s National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System laboratory.

Results: During 2008–2012, 2341 enteric fever cases were reported, 80% typhoid and 20% paratyphoid A. The proportion caused by paratyphoid A increased from 16% (2008) to 22% (2012). Foreign travel within 30 days preceding illness onset was reported by 1961 (86%) patients (86% typhoid and 92% paratyphoid A). Travel to southern Asia was common (82% for typhoid, 97% for paratyphoid A). Among 1091 (58%) typhoid and 262 (56%) paratyphoid A isolates tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, the proportion resistant to nalidixic acid (NAL-R) increased from 2008 to 2012 (Typhi 60% to 68%; Paratyphi-A 91% to 94%). Almost all NAL-R isolates were resistant or showed decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Resistance to at least ampicillin, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (multidrug resistant [MDR]) was limited to Typhi isolates, primarily acquired in southern Asia (13%). Most MDR isolates were also NAL-R.

Conclusions: Enteric fever in the US is primarily associated with travel to southern Asia and increasing resistance is adding to treatment challenges. A bivalent typhoid and paratyphoid vaccine is needed.


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