An Outpatient, Ambulant-Design, Controlled Human Infection Model Using Escalating Doses of Salmonella Typhi Challenge Delivered in Sodium Bicarbonate Solution


Claire S. Waddington, Thomas C. Darton, Claire JonesKathryn HaworthAnna PetersTessa JohnBen A. V. ThompsonSimon A. KerridgeRobert A. KingsleyLiqing ZhouKathryn E. HoltLy-Mee YuStephen LockhartJeremy J. Farrar,  Marcelo B. SzteinGordon DouganBrian AngusMyron M. Levine, and Andrew J. Pollard. 


Background: Typhoid fever is a major global health problem, the control of which is hindered by lack of a suitable animal model in which to study Salmonella Typhi infection. Until 1974, a human challenge model advanced understanding of typhoid and was used in vaccine development. We set out to establish a new human challenge model and ascertain the S.Typhi (Quailes strain) inoculum required for an attack rate of 60%–75% in typhoid-naive volunteers when ingested with sodium bicarbonate solution.

Methods: Groups of healthy consenting adults ingested escalating dose levels of S. Typhi and were closely monitored in an outpatient setting for 2 weeks. Antibiotic treatment was initiated if typhoid diagnosis occurred (temperature ≥38°C sustained ≥12 hours or bacteremia) or at day 14 in those remaining untreated.

Results: Two dose levels (103 or 104 colony-forming units) were required to achieve the primary objective, resulting in attack rates of 55% (11/20) or 65% (13/20), respectively. Challenge was well tolerated; 4 of 40 participants fulfilled prespecified criteria for severe infection. Most diagnoses (87.5%) were confirmed by blood culture, and asymptomatic bacteremia and stool shedding of S. Typhi was also observed. Participants who developed typhoid infection demonstrated serological responses to flagellin and lipopolysaccharide antigens by day 14; however, no anti-Vi antibody responses were detected.

Conclusions : Human challenge with a small inoculum of virulent S. Typhi administered in bicarbonate solution can be performed safely using an ambulant-model design to advance understanding of host–pathogen interactions and immunity. This model should expedite development of diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics for typhoid control.

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