Amoebic bacterial interactions are the most ancient form of host pathogen interactions. Here, we investigate the fate of Salmonella typhimurium and Acanthamoeba castellanii T4 genotype upon mutual interactions in a nutrition free environment. The role of type 1 fimbriae and motility of S. typhimurium during interactions with A. castellanii has also been investigated. Deletion of genes encoding the type 1 fimbriae subunit FimA, type 1 fimbriae tip protein FimH, chemotaxis regulatory proteins CheA and CheY and major flagella subunits FliC and FljB was performed through homologous recombination. In vitro association, invasion and survival assays of S. typhimurium wild-type and mutant strains were performed upon co-incubation of bacteria with A. castellanii trophozoites in a nutrition free environment. The deletion gene encoding type 1 fimbriae subunit FimA reduced, whereas the deletion of genes encoding flagella subunits FliC and FljB of flagella enhanced the association capability of S. typhimurium with A. castellanii. Invasion of A. castellanii by Salmonella was significantly reduced upon the loss of type 1 fimbriae subunit FimA and type 1 fimbriae tip protein FimH. Co-incubation of S. typhimurium with A. castellanii in phosphate buffered saline medium stimulated the growth of S. typhimurium wild-type and mutant strains. Viable A. castellanii trophozoites count became significantly reduced upon co-incubation with S. typhimurium within 48 h. Type 1 fimbriae play a pivotal role in the adherence of S. typhimurium to the A. castellanii cell surface. Subsequently, this interaction provides S. typhimurium an advantage in growth.
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