The Epidemiology of Monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium


Honghu Sun, Yuping Wan, Pengcheng Du, Li Bai


Salmonella enterica remains an important foodborne pathogen in all regions of the world, with Typhimurium as one of the most frequent serotypes causing foodborne disease. However, the past two decades have seen a rapid worldwide emergence of a new Salmonella serotype, namely monophasic variant of S. Typhimurium, whose antigenic formula is 1,4,[5],12:i:-. It has become one of the 2–5 most common Salmonella serotypes responsible for animal and human infections in different regions. The global epidemic of monophasic S. 1,4,[5],12:i:- has mainly been characterized by an increase in multidrug-resistant S. 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolated in Europe since 1997. The unexpected link to swine has escalated monophasic S. Typhimurium infections to the status of a global public health emergency. The large-scale application of whole genome sequencing (WGS) in the last 10 years has revealed the phylogenetic associations of the bacterium and its antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes. Local and global transmission reconstructed by WGS have shown that different clones have emerged following multiple independent events worldwide, and have elucidated the role of this zoonotic pathogen in the spread of AMR. This article discusses our current knowledge of the global ecology, epidemiology, transmission, bacterial adaptation, and evolution of this emerging Salmonella serotype.

Click here to read the article, published in Foodborne Pathogens and Disease.