Nicola Principi & Susanna Esposito
Introduction: Vaccination is an important strategy to control endemic enteric fever (EF) and to interrupt transmission during outbreaks. The main aim of this paper is to discuss the efficacy of available EF vaccines in children and to highlight novel vaccination possibilities against EF and non-typhoid invasive salmonelloses.
Areas covered: Two types of typhoid vaccines are presently available in the industrialized world. One of these vaccines is administered parenterally and is based on the virulence-associated (Vi) capsular polysaccaride of Salmonella typhi. The second vaccine is based on a live attenuated strain of the pathogen and is given orally. In addition, a Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugated vaccine is currently licensed in India; however, it is not available anywhere else.
Expert commentary: Unfortunately, only typhoid fever is addressed by the currently licensed typhoid vaccines. Moreover, they are unsuitable for infants and remain a possible aid for reducing the risk of EF only in older subjects. They should be used in developing countries with endemic EF. New vaccines able to confer long-term protection to subjects in the first years of life and those with immature immune systems could significantly reduce incidence rates of EF in younger children. Vi-conjugate preparations are promising solutions in this regard.
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