Thomas J. Griffin IV, Ann Thanawastien, Robert T. Cartee, John J. Mekalanos & Kevin P. Killeen
Typhax is an investigational typhoid fever vaccine candidate that was GMP manufactured applying Protein Capsular Matrix Vaccine (PCMV) technology. It consists of Vi polysaccharide antigen, derived from S. Typhi, non-covalently entrapped in a glutaraldehyde catalyzed cross-linked α-poly-L-lysine and CRM197 protein matrix. Analysis of Typhax determined the average molecular weight of the vaccine particles was approximately 6 x 106 Daltons, corresponding to particles containing 1-2 molecules of Vi polysaccharide and 10-20 molecules of CRM197 protein. The ratio of concentration of Vi to CRM197 protein in Typhax is 2.4:1. Preclinical immunogenicity studies in mice demonstrated that Typhax was immunogenic and elicited a significant increase in anti-Vi IgG antibody titers following each immunization. The anti-Vi IgG antibody response elicited by Typhax in rabbits increased as the dose increased from 0.1 µg to 2.5 µg. Further, at the 2.5 and 10 µg dose levels, the anti-Vi IgG antibody titers increased after the second and third immunizations. At the 10 µg dose level, 100% of rabbits seroconverted. In the non-human primate (NHP) study, 100% seroconversion was observed at both 2.5 µg and 10 µg dose levels after the first immunization. A murine in vivo immunopotency study demonstrated that Typhax stored at 4°C was stable for at least 30 months. Collectively, the Typhax in vitro profile, preclinical immunogenicity studies, and rabbit toxicology study indicate that Typhax is a viable typhoid fever vaccine candidate for Phase 1 clinical trial evaluation.
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