Antimicrobial Resistance

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Research indicates that multidrug resistant (MDR) typhoid strains have become increasingly common in typhoid high-burden communities, requiring new and more expensive antibiotics for treatment and increasing hospitalization rates for patients. Without appropriate antibiotic therapy, the mortality rate for typhoid can reach 20%.

Studies in Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa have revealed a growing drug resistant strain of typhoid known as H58. Emerging 30 years ago in Asia, H58 cases have grown across Asia and spread to multiple African countries. Research from the Wellcome Trust illustrates the growth in Malawi, where in 2010 only 7% of typhoid cases were resistant to multiple drugs. In 2014, 97% of typhoid cases resisted treatment from multiple drugs.

Typhoid cases resistant to multiple drugs, Malawi 2010

7%

 

Typhoid cases resistant to multiple drugs, Malawi 2014

97%

 

The spread of drug-resistant typhoid will lead to increased costs of treatment and more complications, including death. Currently, if left untreated, 20% of typhoid cases are fatal. With treatment becoming ineffective against the disease, this number is expected to grow as H58 spreads.

So far, countries reporting drug resistant strains of typhoid include:

  1. Ghana
  2. Uganda
  3. Zambia
  4. Kuwait
  5. Cameroon
  6. Oman
  7. China
  8. Uzbekistan
  9. Qatar
  10. Tajikistan
  11. Burkina Faso
  12. Guinea-Bissau
  13. India (the remaining countries are from this article)
  14. Nepal
  15. Bangladesh
  16. Sri Lanka
  17. Pakistan
  18. Afghanistan
  19. Cambodia
  20. Myanmar
  21. Indonesia
  22. Laos
  23. Vietnam
  24. Thailand
  25. Lebanon
  26. Iraq
  27. Palestine
  28. Fiji
  29. Australia
  30. Kenya
  31. Malawi
  32. Tanzania
  33. South Africa
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