Typhoid control requires a comprehensive approach that combines immediate measures such as access
to appropriate treatment and the vaccination, with sustainable long-term solutions like access to safe water, basic sanitation and promotion of good hygiene practices.
Typhoid infections can be largely eliminated through improved water and sanitation systems, like those used in industrialized countries. However, the development of such infrastructure requires significant capital investments beyond the near-term reach of most developing countries.
In populations where the rights of access to safe water and basic sanitation have yet to be addressed, typhoid vaccination can help reduce this gap in equity, social justice, and human rights by delivering a safe, effective and affordable intervention to control typhoid fever.
Typhoid vaccines can also provide herd immunity to unvaccinated individuals against the disease when used as part of a large-scale vaccination effort, helping to further reduce the prevalence and spread of antibiotic-resistant typhoid.
Currently two typhoid vaccines are internationally available: a parenteral Vi-based polysaccharide vaccine as a 1-dose regimen and an oral, live, attenuated oral Ty21a vaccine as a 3-dose regimen. Next generation typhoid vaccines and new paratyphoid vaccines are also under development.