Currently two typhoid vaccines are internationally available: a parenteral Vi-based polysaccharide vaccine as a 1-dose regimen and an oral, live, attenuated oral Ty21a vaccine as a 3-dose regimen. Next generation typhoid vaccines and new paratyphoid vaccines are also under development.
Vaccination in typhoid high burden communities has been proven safe and effective through multiple clinical trials, demonstration projects and ministry of health programs. Typhoid vaccines can also provide herd immunity to unvaccinated individuals against the disease when used as part of a large-scale vaccination effort, helping to further reduce the prevalence and spread of antibiotic-resistant typhoid.
The impact of typhoid vaccination programs on disease incidence are presented below.
NB: Cuba switched from whole-cell inactivated vaccine to Vi PS in 2002, one dose regimen, 10-16y school children.
NB: ViPS vaccine, one dose regimen, 5-18y school children.
NB: ViPS vaccine, one dose regimen, 2-15y school children.